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Basement and Foundation Terms
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Drains
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Floor Drains
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Toilets
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Fittings
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Kitchen Sinks
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Bathtubs
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Shower Equipment
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Chrome Plating
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Water Heaters
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Leaky Pipes
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Thawing Frozen Pipes
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Noises in the Plumbing System
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Sweating Pipes
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Odors in the Plumbing System
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Where and How to Shut Off Water
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It is used to shut off water flow while you repair the connected item.
It is used to shut off water flow while you repair the connected item.
When the toilet is flushed, the circular float will drop and open the ballcock. This results in water being distributed in the tank. As the water rises, the float rises to the level that shuts of the ballcock.
The PRV constrains the amount of water entering from the water companies supply to normalize water pressure for home use.
Capillary action causes porous materials to become saturated, as can be demonstrated by placing a sponge on when service. Capillary action forces water upward against the force of gravity.
The piping is often a 4-inch diameter plastic tube with rows of holes or slits. The drain tile is installed at or below the footing.

Two to 3 inches of clean gravel is placed at the bottom of the tile trench and the tile is installed with the holes or slits porting downward. Two to 3 feet of gravel is then be placed on top of the tile to allow subsurface water to drain down and into the tile.

Ideally, the tile can be routed to a location away from the home where it will drain onto the ground. The water will need to be directed to a sump pit if this is not possible.

Moisture in the concrete dissolves soluble salts in the mix and forms the discoloration upon evaporation. Even cured concrete can be somewhat porous and moist soil around the foundation will cause this action as well.
This base supports the foundation, either a block foundation or a stem wall. However, the foundation may be poured as an integral part of a slab, as in a monolithic foundation.
Evidence of foundation movement can be seen by bulging walls, shifted concrete blocks in the basement and cracks in the mortar joints.

Cracks in the interior walls of the home can also signal foundation movement. Some of the causes of foundation movement are hydraulic pressure, improper construction practices and freeze/thaw conditions in the soil.

While some types of foundation movement can be seen easily, a plumb line or string line may be necessary to determine the extent of movement.

When exposed to water this powdery mix will solidify, a process called curing. Additionally, hydraulic cement will harden regardless of the amount of water to which it is exposed and will often cure underwater. Cement should not be confused with concrete, which is a mixture of cement, gravel and sand. Some types of cement, such as Portland cement, will shrink slightly during the curing process. Other types will actually expand to some degree.
In the case of foundations and basements, water-saturated backfill around the foundation exerts pressure on the foundation wall.

It's often the result of clogged exterior footing drains. Hydraulic pressure causes leaks and seepage at foundation cracks if not repaired.
It does not have a full footing and foundation wall configuration. The foundation is formed by pouring the slab thicker at the edges. The monolithic foundation is used primarily in locations where the ground does not freeze.
When properly installed, the pilaster will help minimize cracking caused by the weight of the building. The height of the building will determine the construction of the pilaster.
The poured foundation is often strengthened by inserting vertical steel reinforcing rods. It is called a stem wall in some locales.
The separation runs down the vertical joint and across the horizontal joint, forming a crack that looks like a set of stairs. Stair step cracks are usually the result of foundation settling.
They are also called tie-backs or tie reinforcement rods. They are placed every 18 inches along the form near the top and bottom of the form and secure the inner plywood to the outer plywood.

They are left in place as the concrete is poured and allowed to cure. Once the concrete has cured enough to stand on its own, the forms are removed, as are the tie rods. Some contractors will fill the holes with cement and apply a tar coating to resist leakage.

Old mortar is removed to a uniform depth and is then replaced with a new mortar mixture. The mortar damage can be caused for several reasons, the most common of which is the entrance water into hairline cracks that damages the mortar through freezing and thawing.
It is the upper surface of what is called the zone of saturation. The water at this level is at atmospheric pressure. Foundations constructed at or below the water table are subject to damage from soil shifting and foundation settling.
They can be formed by leaving gaps in the mortar of or can be formed using small tubes surrounded by the mortar. Weep holes are generally installed above the grade and can be covered with a netting to prevent invasion from insects.
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